Isolation and Identification of Rhizobia fromWild Legumes in Blue Nile and Gezira States


By Migdam E. Abdelgan, Awad G. Osman, Somaya S. Mohamed, Belgees S. Abdelgadir, Gadalla A. ElHassan.


During the last decades, the increased costs of fertilizer production coupled with the progressively increasing use of chemical fertilizers are adding to the cost of crop cultivation. In addition, chemical fertilizers are harmful when they persist in the soil and enter the food chain. Instead, an approach is adopted to introduce into the soil potential microorganism, a practice known as inoculation. The inoculants are also known as biofertilizers. Several microorganisms and their association with crop plants are being exploited in the production of biofertilizers. The microorganisms which are potential biofertilizers are symbiotic and nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixing microorganisms, phosphorous solubilizing microorganisms and silicate bacteria. The potential uses of biofertilizers in agriculture play an important role of providing an economically viable level for achieving the ultimate goal to enhance productivity. On the other hand, the value of organic materials as a source of plant nutrients is greatly enhanced by composting. Composted materials are also more stable and pleasant to handle. In this paper the discussion is restricted to a review of the main groups of microbial biofertilizers in addition to fertilizers from the organic origin.


  • Abdelgani, M.E., G.A. ElHassan and A.M. Rugheim, 2003a. Impact of salinity on growth and symbiotic properties of some guar rhizobia. J. Sci. Technol., 4: 7-18
  • Abdelgani, M.E., A.G. Osman and S.S. Mohamed, 2003b. Restoring soil fertility of desertified lands through biological nitrogen fixation In: Desertification in the Third Millennium (eds. A.S. Sharhan, W.W. Wood, A.S. Goudie, A. Fowler and E.M. Abdellatif). A.A. Balkima Publishers. Lisse, the Netherlands, pp: 335-338.
  • Elsharif, E.A. and M.E. Abdelgani, 2007. Assessing the effeciency of filter mud as a carrier for Rhizobiu inoculants. Albuhuth, 11: 77-8
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E., 2001. Effect of inoculation with Rhizobium on the seed chemical and physical properties of legumes. Ann. Applied Biol., 63: 151- 163.
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E., 1998a. A note on the effect offertilization on the seed quality of faba bean. U.K. J.Agric. Sci., 6: 167-172.
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E., 1998b. Response of legume-Rhizobium symbiosis to salinity in the Sudan: AReview. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 6: 142-156.
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E. and E.I.A. Ahmed, 2000. A note on the effect of intercropping and Rhizobium inoculation on the seed quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). U of K. J. Agric. Sci., 8: 157-163
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E., N.N.B. Elnesairy and A.A. Mahdi, 2006 Effect of sinorhizobium inoculation and chicke manure on nodulation and forage yield of alfalf (Medicago sativa L.) under irrigation in a Semi-arienvironment. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 14: 182-197.
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E. and H.A.S. Forawi, 1995. Response offenugreek to inoculation as influenced by salinity,soil texture, chicken manure and nitrogen. U.K. JAgric. Sci., 3: 77-90
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E. and E.M.M. Mohamedzein, 1998. Effec of Bradyrhizobium, VA mycorrhiza and fertilizers o seed composition of groundnut. Ann. Applied Biol. 132: 325-33
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E., S.S. Mohamed, A.A. Elhussein and E.E.Babiker, 2009. Effects of intercropping,Bradyrhizobium inoculation and chicken manurefertilization on the chemical composition andphysical characteristics of soybean seed. FoodChem., 112: 690-694.
  • Elsheikh, E.A.E. and A.G. Osman, 1995. Rhizobiumleguminosarum inoculation decreases damage tofaba bean (Vicia faba L.) caused by broad beanmottle bromovirus and bean yellow mosaicpotyvirus. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 11: 223-227.
  • Elballa, M.M.A., A.H.B. Elamin, E.A. Elamin and E.A.EElsheikh, 2004. Interactive effects of cultivars foliarapplication of microelements and Rhizobiuminoculatiom on snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)performance. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 12: 321-332
  • Hassan, M.A. and M.E. Abdelgani, 2009. Effect ofmicrobial biofertilization on nodulation, nitrogen andphosphorus content and forage yield of lablab bean(Lablab purpureus L.). American-Eurasian J.Sustainable Agriculture (In press).
  • Hassan, A.E., M.D. Dennett and T.M. Hago, 2006a Effects of molybdenum and zinc application anBradyrhizobium inoculation on growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) 1. nodulation, lea nutrient content and biomass production. U.K. J Agric. Sci., 14: 32-49
  • Abdelrahim, Y.M., M.E. Abdelgani and E.E. Abdelrahman, 2005. Testing the suitability of locally available materials as carriers for rhizobia. Gezira. J. Agric. Sci., 3: 123-136
  • Abuswar, A.O. and A.S. Mohamed, 1997a. Effect of phosphorus application and Rhizobium inoculation on two cultivars of alfalfa plant density and seed ptoduction. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 5: 1-11
  • Abuswar, A.O. and A.S. Mohamed, 1997b. Effect of phosphorus application and Rhizobium inoculation on two cultivars of alfalfa II Growth and nodulation. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 5: 12-23
  • Adlan, M.A.M. and N.O. Mukhtar, 2004. Quantifying N2 fixed by groundnut (Arachis Is hypogaea L.) as comared to some sumer legumes using N 15 methodology with different reference crops. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 12: 357-369
  • Ahmed, S.H., M.E. Abdelgani and A.M. Yassin, 2009. Effects of interaction between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and root-knot nematodes on dolichos bean (Lablab niger Medik.) plants. American-Eurasian J. Sustainable Agriculture (In press)
  • Ahmed, A.E., M.A.M. Adlan and N.O. Hukhtar, 2005. Effect of plant growth promoting bacterium (Azospirillum brasilense) and Bradyrhizobium on growth, yield and nitrogen fixation of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Gezira. J. Agric. Sci., 3: 137-147
  • Ahmed, A.E. and E.A.E. Elsheikh, 1998. Effects of biological and chemical fertilizers on growth and symbiotic properties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under salt stress. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 6: 150-166
  • Ahmed, F.E., S.O. Yagoub and E.A.E. Elsheikh, 2000. Effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on the nodulation, mycorrhizal infection and yield components of faba bean grown ynder two different watering regimes. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 8: 107-117
  • Ali, E.H.S., 2010. Eco-physiological studies on cyanobacteria in Sudan. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. University of Khartoum
  • Ali, E.H., 2003. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on the yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the sandy soils of the Kordofan region western Sudan. Arab gulf J. Scientific Res., 21: 232-236
  • Atabani, E.M., 1988. Interaction between Bradyrhizobium-inoculated hyacinth bean and soybean and endo mycorrhizal fungi. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum
  • Babiker, E.E., E.A.E. Elsheikh, A.G. Osman and A.H. Eltinay, 1995. Effect of nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fertilization and viral infection on yield, tannin and protein contents and in vitro protein digestibility of faba bean. Plant Foods Human Nutr., 47: 257-263
  • ElAtta, H.A. and U.E. Osman, 1993. Rhizobial cross inoculation groups of Faidherbia albida and Acacia spp. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 1: 127-136
  • Hassan, A.E., M.D. Dennett and T.M. Hago, 2006b.Effects of Molybdenum and zinc application andBradyrhizobium inoculation on growth and yield ofgroundnut (Arachis Is hypogaea L.) 11. Pod yieldand its coponents. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 14: 50-63.
  • Galal, I.M., 1993. Effects of inoculation with va-mycorrhizal fungi on nodulation and dry matter yieldof Bradyrhizobium inoculated cowpea. M.Sc.Thesis. University of Khartoum.
  • Ibrahim, K.A., E.A.E. Elsheikh and E.E. Babiker, 2008a.Minerals composition of Hyacinth Bean (Dolichoshyacinth L.) seed as influenced by Bradyrhizobiuminoculation and/or chicken manure or sulphurfertilization. Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 785-792.
  • Ibrahim, K.A., E.A.E. Elsheikh and E.E. Babiker, 2008b.Bradyrhizobium inoculation and chicken manure orsulphur fertilization of Hyacinth Bean (Dolichoshyacinth L.) changes in physical characteristics andchemical composition of the seeds. Austr. J. BasicApplied Sci., 2: 605-616.
  • Ibrahim, A.S., E.K. Osman and M.A.M. Khair, 1996. Effectof phosphorus fertilizer on growth and forage yieldof Clitoria ternatae, Lablab purpureus and Vignatrilobata. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 4: 18-30.
  • Mahdi, A.A., 1993. Biofertilizer research in Sudan a review. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 1: 137-153
  • Mahdi, A.A. and E.M.A. Mustafa, 2005. Response of guarto Bradyrhizobium inoculation and to nitrogen andphosphorus fertilization. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 13: 97-110.
  • Mahdi, A.A., A.B. Nur Eldaim and A.A. Arbab, 2004Influence of mycorrhizal inoculation form ofphosphate fertilization and watering regime onnodulation and yield of soybean. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 12: 345-356
  • Mohamed, A.S., S.M. Elhassan, M.M.A. Elballa and E.A.E.Elsheikh, 2008. The role of Trichoderma, VAmycorrhiza and dry yeast in the control ofRhizoctonia disease of potato (Solanum tuberosumL.). U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 16: 284-300
  • Mohamed Ahmed, T.H., E.A.E. Elsheikh and A.A. Mahadi,2009. The in vitro compatibility of some Rhizobiumand Bradyrhizobium strains with fungicides. Afr.Crop Sci. Conf. Proc., B: 1171-1178.
  • Mohamed, S.S. and A.G. Osman, 1996. The Biofertilizeruse of Rhizobium strain TAL380 for increasingAlfalfa production in Khartoum State. Al Buhuth J., 5: 115-125
  • Mohammed, S.S., A.G. Osman, A.S. Abdalla and A.M.Rugheim, 2010. Response of wheat to biologicaland nitrogen fertilization. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 18: 31-42.
  • Osman, A.G., 2009. Study of some characteristics ofsilicate bacteria. J. Sci. Technol., 10: 24-31.
  • Osman, A.G., 2003. Isolation and partial characterizationof some non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteriaisolated from peat inoculants. J. Sci. Technol., 4: 106-113
  • Osman, A.G. and E.A.E. Elsheikh, 1994. Possibility of controlling bean yellow mosaic virus on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) by Rhizobium inoculation. U.K. J. Agric. Sci., 2: 93-107
  • Osman, A.G., N.A. Hag Elamin and E.A.E. Elsheikh, 1996. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation and Nfertilization on the productivity of two faba bean cultivars. AlBuhuth J., 5: 127-137
  • Osman, A.G., S.A. Saad, A.A. Satti, B.M. ElAmin, M.H. Elnasikh, M. Abdelrahman, N.A. Gaili and I.A. Elsheikh, 2009. Evaluation of the production of Elkhaseeb organic fertilizer. Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute. Annual Scientific Report, pp: 37-50
  • Rugheim, A.M. and M.E. Abdelgani, 2009. Effects of microbial and chemical fertilization on yield and seed quality of faba bean. 9 Conference of the th African Crop Science Society: Science and Technology Supporting Food Security in Africa. Cape Town, South Africa 28 September-1 October 2009.